TASC Social Studies Practice Test

Start your test prep with our free TASC Social Studies practice test. The TASC Social Studies test covers U.S. History, Government, Civics, and Economics. You are given 75 minutes to answer 48 questions. All of our online practice questions include answers and detailed explanations. Make sure you study the images, passages, and charts that are provided, since these will often contain the information you need to answer the question.

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Question 1
The following is an excerpt from a President Franklin Roosevelt speech given on Dec. 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor:

“Yesterday… the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan… As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense… Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.”
 
Under the US Constitution, which body has the sole authority to declare war?

A
The President
B
The U.S. Congress
C
The Secretary of Defense
D
The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Congress immediately approved President Roosevelt’s request and declared war against Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor. Only Congress has the authority to declare war, although it is the president who directs the conduct of the war. This is an example of the separation of powers outlined in the US Constitution.
Question 2
Examine the illustrations and answer the two questions that follow.

The first picture shows a plantation located in the South where they are growing which cash crop?

A
Indigo
B
Tobacco
C
Rice
D
Cotton
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The American South exhibited an ideal climate and soil for the harvesting of certain crops. With the development of Jamestown in 1609, the Southern colonies began producing large amounts of these ‘cash’ crops, the term given to agriculture sold primarily for profit. The invention of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitey in 1794 transformed cotton into a highly profitable cash crop and inevitably lead to the growth of slavery throughout the South. Although indigo, tobacco, and rice were all grown as cash crops in the South, only cotton grew in the manner presented in the first picture.
Question 3

These pictures comparing a Southern plantation to a Northern port illustrate which major cause of the Civil War?

A
Imperialism
B
Sectionalism
C
Isolation
D
Mercantilism
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Sectional issues between the North and South arose as a result of differences in geography and climate. The warm climate and fertile soil in the South was ideal for growing cotton, and to maximize profits, the South primarily relied upon slave labor. Contrastingly, the cooler climate and rocky soil in the North was not suitable for large farms. Consequently, the North's economy depended primarily upon trade. Industry and commerce were centered in the North, and many Northern states had prohibited slavery by 1850. The drastic social and economic differences between the South and the North gave rise to sectionalism, and ultimately the Civil War.
Question 4
Review the political cartoon and answer the questions that follow.

The baby’s speech bubbles provide commentary on what American history event?

A
Problems during The Great Depression
B
Causes of the American Revolution
C
The New Era Deal
D
The Civil Rights Movement
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The world experienced a major economic downturn from 1929 to 1939, referred to as The Great Depression. President Herbert Hoover was criticized for his ineffectiveness in dealing with this depression. His attempts to fix the American economy included: large-scale government public works projects such as the Hoover Dam, efforts to convince business leaders to keep wages high, large tax increases, and passage of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, which crippled international trade. Many of these efforts proved counterproductive or outright failed, and Hoover went on to lose the election of 1932 to Franklin Delano Roosevelt in a landslide.
Question 5

A major difference between President Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives and President Hoover’s administrative policies was that the New Deal offered which of the following?

A
An emphasis on rugged individualism.
B
A transition from capitalism to socialism.
C
A focus on fiscal restraint and a balanced budget.
D
Provided the government a more active role in the economy.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The New Deal was a series of government programs that focused on relief, recovery, and reform. It greatly expanded the role of the federal government, particularly in an effort to help the poor and the unemployed. These New Deal programs and policies included the Works Progress Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Social Security Act, the United States Housing Authority, the Farm Security Administration, and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

The results of and the responses to the New Deal were mixed. After 1933, the economy gradually began a process of improvement, but the depression did not technically end until 1939. It was not until 1945, with the end of World War II, that the economy began to surge.
Question 6
Examine the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

The diagram illustrates which of the following principles?

A
Federalism
B
The Integration of Powers
C
Judicial Review
D
Checks and Balances
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The American government utilizes a system of checks and balances that enables each branch of government to oversee and exert some control over the actions of the other branches. This system is meant to prevent any single branch from acting autonomously, thereby preventing a centralization of power. The diagram shows that each branch of government is influenced by, and can influence, each of the other branches.
Question 7

What is the purpose of checks and balances in our government?

A
To write our bank deposits and withdrawals
B
To prevent any branch of government from overstepping its powers and to divide power across each branch
C
To make the government operate more efficiently
D
To equally divide power between the national government and state governments
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The system of checks and balances enables each branch of government to restrict the power of the other branches of government. This principle of government ensures that no branch can over step the powers given to it by the Constitution, and that the government’s power is distributed across each branch.
Question 8
Examine the newspaper headline and answer the question that follows.

In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court declare segregation of schools unconstitutional?

A
Plessy v. Ferguson
B
Marbury v. Madison
C
Brown v. Board of Education
D
Korematsu v. United States
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court unanimously declared segregation of schools unconstitutional. This ruling overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, which had upheld state segregation laws for public facilities under the "separate but equal" doctrine. The Brown decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
Question 9
The following scenario describes an economic decision:

After graduating from high school, Juan applies to several job advertisements and receives an offer to work as a clerk in a retail store for $8 per hour. However, Juan decides to enroll in a community college and after two years he completes a technical training program that prepares him to become a welder. After completing the program, he finds employment as an apprentice welder and earns $20 per hour.
 
Which choice describes the opportunity cost of Juan’s decision?

A
The cost of tuition at the community college.
B
$12 — The difference between Juan’s wages as a welder and as a retail clerk.
C
$20 — Juan’s wages as an apprentice welder.
D
The total wages he would have earned in two years while working as a retail clerk.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The opportunity cost of an economic decision is the gain that an individual sacrifices in making a particular decision. In this case, the opportunity cost is the total wages Juan would have earned while working at the retail job instead of going to school.
Question 10
Examine the poster and answer the question that follows.

This World War II poster served what function:

A
Encourage protest against the war.
B
Promote support for the war.
C
Encourage the Axis powers to end the war.
D
Demonstrate the ineffectiveness of guns.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). While men were on the battle lines, women were encouraged to contribute to the war effort by participating in factory work and other jobs traditionally held by men.
Question 11
The following excerpt is from a speech by Congressman James Madison in 1789 on the introduction of the Bill of Rights:

“There have been objections of various kinds made against the Constitution… but I believe that the great mass of the people who opposed it, disliked it because it did not contain effectual provision against encroachments on particular rights, and those safeguards which they have been long accustomed to have interposed between them and the magistrate who exercised the sovereign power… it will be practicable on that ground… to satisfy the public mind that their liberties will be perpetual.”
 
Why did Madison, and many other Americans, feel that the Bill of Rights was necessary?

A
To protect the US government from foreign powers
B
To prevent a rebellion against the Constitution
C
To grant the US government additional powers
D
To protect individual rights and liberties
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Many Americans felt that the Constitution did not do enough to protect individual rights. The Bill of Rights was presented as a solution, and included 10 amendments that specifically limited the government’s power regarding issues like religion, freedom of expression, and freedom of the press.
Question 12
The following cartoon is from Harpers Weekly in 1876:

How does the cartoon reflect historical circumstances during Reconstruction in the South?

A
African Americans and Caucasians could only legally vote for the Democratic Party during Reconstruction.
B
African Americans immediately exercised full civil and political rights in the South after the abolition of slavery.
C
African Americans were still subject to harassment and intimidation in the South after the Civil War.
D
White southerners were forced to defend themselves when African Americans took up arms against their former masters.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Although several constitutional amendments were passed that gave African Americans equal political and civil rights, these efforts largely failed in the South during Reconstruction. Southern states passed laws which prevented African Americans from exercising their rights, such as poll taxes and literacy tests. When that failed, armed vigilantes like the Ku Klux Klan used violence and threats to intimidate African Americans, especially during elections, as depicted in the cartoon.
Question 13
Use the following quotation from an interview with historian Elaine Tyler May to answer the questions that follow.

The baby boom happened as a result of many factors, including important demographic ones. A lot of women got married and had children after the war, and they generally stopped working after that. The marriage age dropped dramatically — young people were rushing into marriage, and a larger percentage of people married than ever before. People began having children at a younger age. Nearly everybody got married and had children. It wasn't that people started having large families... it was that everybody was having a few children, at all levels of society… Add to that the G.I. Bill, which enabled many G.I.s to go to school at the expense of the government, to purchase homes with as little as $1 down, and very generous loan policies for veterans. So public policy did, to an extent, encourage marriage and childbearing.
 
The baby boom that occurred in the United States between 1950 and the late 1960s had which significant impact?

A
It forced many people to seek marriage.
B
It prompted a high demand for the construction of new housing and schools.
C
It forced G.I.s to return to the front lines in order to provide security for their families.
D
Women and children no longer needed to work in factories.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). As described in the passage, the baby boom resulted from couples marrying and having children at younger ages. As a result, there was a growing demand for schools and small communities around those schools in order to accommodate the increasing number of families. This was the start of suburbanization, the migration of people from urban areas to the quiet suburbs in order to raise their families.
Question 14
Examine the pictures shown and answer the question that follows.


Marines crossing the 38th parallel in Korea.


Marines riding atop an M-48 tank in Vietnam.

What was the primary reason for United States involvement in the Korean War and the Vietnam War?

A
Imperialistic goals of the United States to secure territories in Asia.
B
Desire of the United States to exert militaristic power in third world countries.
C
An attempt by the United States to prevent the spread of communism.
D
To assist the people in gaining their independence from dictators.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The United States involved itself in these two conflicts in order to prevent the influence of Russia and to curb the spread of communism.

The Korean War was fought from 1950 to 1953 and started when 75,000 soldiers from the People’s Republic of Korea (North), supported by communist Russia, crossed the 38th parallel into The Republic of Korea (South), supported by democratic United States.

The Vietnam Conflict occurred from 1955 to 1975, when revolutionaries known as Viet Minh, and communists led by Ho Chi Minh, attempted to drive out anti-communist supporters. This led communist China and the United States to enter the conflict.
Question 15
Review the chart and answer the questions that follow.

What is the most likely reason that the Confederate States of America won several major battles early in the Civil War?

A
The Confederacy had a great supply line to fortify their troops with guns and ammunition.
B
The Confederacy had a much larger army.
C
The Confederacy had superior military generals who outmaneuvered the Union troops.
D
The Confederacy lacked knowledge of the territory in which most battles took place.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy produced many stunning victories over the Union Army. While the Union Army had most of the military and financial advantages of the war, President Abraham Lincoln could not find a general able to string together a series of wins for the Union. Eventually, General Ulysses S. Grant would command the Union Army to victory.
Question 16

What would be the best title for the chart?

A
Comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the Union and Confederacy
B
Comparison of military supplies of the Union and Confederacy armies
C
Understanding why the Union won the Civil War
D
Understanding the advantages the Confederacy had over the Union
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Each column of the chart presents a list of facts relating to the economic and military advantages and disadvantages of the Union and the Confederacy. These facts enable a direct comparison of each region.
Question 17
Read the following quotation from James Madison and answer the questions that follow.

The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce; with which last the power of taxation will, for the most part, be connected. The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.

The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security. As the former periods will probably bear a small proportion to the latter, the State governments will here enjoy another advantage over the federal government. The more adequate, indeed, the federal powers may be rendered to the national defense, the less frequent will be those scenes of danger which might favor their ascendancy over the governments of the particular States.
 
James Madison defends which of the following concepts in the above quotation?

A
Federalism
B
Checks and Balances
C
Republicanism
D
Socialism
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Federalism is a form of government marked by the division of power between a federal government and a collection of regional governments. James Madison contends that the powers of our federal and state governments are equally divided in order to prevent an abuse of federal or state power and to ensure that the people can address any such abuse.
Question 18
The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce; with which last the power of taxation will, for the most part, be connected. The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.

The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security. As the former periods will probably bear a small proportion to the latter, the State governments will here enjoy another advantage over the federal government. The more adequate, indeed, the federal powers may be rendered to the national defense, the less frequent will be those scenes of danger which might favor their ascendancy over the governments of the particular States.
 
Which of the following powers does James Madison indicate will be left exclusively to the federal government?

A
The power to tax the people
B
The power to regulate trade
C
The power to form a military
D
The power to issues licenses
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). In sentence 3, Madison states that only the federal government can form an army and declare war on another nation. He states elsewhere that both state and federal governments have the power to tax the people and that the federal government regulates international trade and interstate trade, while states regulate intrastate trade (trade within the state). Licenses can be issued by the federal government or the states.
Question 19
Examine the chart and answer the questions that follow.

The “right to bear arms” is granted by which amendment of the United States Constitution?

A
First Amendment
B
Tenth Amendment
C
Fifth Amendment
D
Second Amendment
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Bill of Rights provides the first 10 amendments:
  1. Freedom of religion, speech, and the press
  2. The right to bear arms
  3. Freedom from housing soldiers
  4. Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
  5. Right to a grand jury
  6. Rights of accused persons in criminal cases
  7. Rights in civil cases
  8. Excessive bail, fines, and punishments forbidden
  9. Rights reserved to the people
  10. Undelegated powers kept by the states and people
Question 20

According to the chart, which of the following states does not require a mental health background check to purchase a firearm?

A
California
B
Texas
C
Florida
D
Illinois
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The second map, titled “Mental health,” shows which states require mental health background checks. California is not shaded, indicating that it does not require background checks.
Question 21
Study the graph and answer the question that follows.

Which of the following statements is NOT true about this graph?

A
The equilibrium price is less than 3.
B
The quantity demanded will increase with lower prices.
C
A surplus will occur if 20 units are supplied at a price of 4.50.
D
The quantity supplied will increase with lower prices.
Question 21 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The quantity supplied will NOT increase with lower prices. The supply curve shows that as price decreases, the quantity supplied also decreases. Higher prices will lead producers to supply higher quantities.

It can be seen that the equilibrium point corresponds to a Q* less than 40 and a P* less than 3. The demand curve shows that as price decreases, the quantity demanded increases. At a quantity of 20, there is a surplus at any price greater than approximately 3.9.
Question 22
Study the map and answer the question that follows.

According to this map, the majority of Australia exhibits what climate type?

A
equatorial and temperate
B
tropical and grassland
C
desert and temperate
D
grassland and desert
Question 22 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). It can be seen that orange, representing desert, makes up the largest portion of the continent. Yellow, representing grassland, makes up the next largest portion. No other combination covers as much of the continent.
Question 23
Read the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

Good and Kind Treatment is Required

by Freedmen's Bureau officer Martin R. Delany

No labor is to be performed by hand that can better be done by animal labor or machinery. All damage for injury or loss of property by carelessness is to be paid by fair and legal assessments.

All Thanksgiving, Fast Days, "Holidays" and National Celebration Days are to be enjoyed by contractors without being regarded as a neglect of duty or violation of contract.

Good conduct and good behavior of the Freedmen toward the proprietor; good treatment of animals; and good care of tools, utensils, etc; and good and kind treatment of the Proprietor to the Freedmen, will be strictly required by the Authorities.

No stores will be permitted on the place and nothing sold on account except the necessaries of life such as good substantial food and working clothes. Spirituous liquors will not be permitted.

In all cases where an accusation is made against a person, the Proprietor or his Agent, [and] one of the Freedmen selected by themselves, and a third person chosen by the two shall be a council to investigate the accused. In all cases where a decision is to be made to dismiss or forfeit a share of the crop, the officer of the Bureau or some other Officer of the Government must preside in the trial and make the decision. When the Proprietor is prejudiced against an accused person, he must name a person to take his place in the Council.
 
What was the purpose of the Freedmen’s Bureau?

A
To help African Americans, particularly those who had been enslaved, adjust to life with increased rights and responsibilities.
B
To free slaves from Southern plantations.
C
To ensure that white voters supported anti-slavery laws.
D
To help Confederate prisoners of war return home safely.
Question 23 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The Freedman’s Bureau played a key role in helping African Americans gain access to basic needs like education, property, and health care during the Reconstruction era.
Question 24

Good and Kind Treatment is Required

by Freedmen's Bureau officer Martin R. Delany

No labor is to be performed by hand that can better be done by animal labor or machinery. All damage for injury or loss of property by carelessness is to be paid by fair and legal assessments.

All Thanksgiving, Fast Days, "Holidays" and National Celebration Days are to be enjoyed by contractors without being regarded as a neglect of duty or violation of contract.

Good conduct and good behavior of the Freedmen toward the proprietor; good treatment of animals; and good care of tools, utensils, etc; and good and kind treatment of the Proprietor to the Freedmen, will be strictly required by the Authorities.

No stores will be permitted on the place and nothing sold on account except the necessaries of life such as good substantial food and working clothes. Spirituous liquors will not be permitted.

In all cases where an accusation is made against a person, the Proprietor or his Agent, [and] one of the Freedmen selected by themselves, and a third person chosen by the two shall be a council to investigate the accused. In all cases where a decision is to be made to dismiss or forfeit a share of the crop, the officer of the Bureau or some other Officer of the Government must preside in the trial and make the decision. When the Proprietor is prejudiced against an accused person, he must name a person to take his place in the Council.
 
Following the Civil War, freed slaves in the South had difficulty improving their social and economic status because:

A
Literacy for former slaves was now encouraged.
B
Most freed slaves went to the North to look for factory jobs.
C
People migrated from the North to compete for southern agricultural jobs.
D
The system of sharecropping kept freed slaves in a cycle of poverty and oppression.
Question 24 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Sharecropping was a system in which a portion of the crops farmed on a plantation were shared with the farmers who worked on the land. However, even as freed men, black farmers often owed debt to both a landowner and other creditors, and perpetually needed to borrow against their expected yields. This system inevitably restricted many sharecroppers from obtaining financial freedom.
Question 25
Analyze the chart and answer the following questions:

Which of these is the best title for this chart?

A
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal
B
Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society
C
George W. Bush's Compassionate Conservatism
D
Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal
Question 25 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The Great Society was a set of domestic programs launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. These programs focused on civil rights, poverty, education, healthcare, welfare, cultural institutions, consumer protection, environmental protection, housing, rural development, and labor.
Question 26

Which of the following programs was designed to help people of all income levels?

A
Housing and Urban Development Act
B
Higher Education Act
C
Medicare
D
Medicaid
Question 26 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). According to the chart, Medicare "provides health insurance for the elderly." There is no mention of income levels; for all of the other choices, the chart specifies low or middle income.
Question 27
The monetary value of all the finished goods and services that are produced within a country's borders in a specific time period is the:

A
Money Supply
B
Gross Domestic Product
C
Balance of Trade
D
Aggregate Demand
Question 27 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, is the main tool for measuring the activity of a country's economy. The GDP takes into account consumer spending, government spending, overall investment, and the total net exports.

Money supply is the total amount of monetary resources available to a country at a given time. Balance of trade is the difference between a country’s exports and imports (or total net exports) at a given time. Aggregate demand is the total demand for goods and services in a country’s economy at a given time.
Question 28
The following is an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence, written in 1776:

“When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
 
The excerpt incorporates which of the following concepts?

A
Federalism
B
Constitutionalism
C
Natural rights
D
Separation of powers
Question 28 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Declaration of Independence was based upon the principle of natural rights, which are universal and inalienable. The significance is that that these rights cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws. Today, this concept is referred to as human rights.
Question 29
The United States Constitution grants state governments the power to do which of the following?

A
Conduct elections
B
Regulate trade between states
C
Establish post offices
D
Make treaties
Question 29 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Under the U.S. system of Federalism, there is a Constitutional division of power between the federal (national) government and the state governments, with each retaining significant authority. The power to conduct elections is reserved for states. The other powers listed are delegated to the federal government.
Question 30
Study the information in the diagram and answer the question that follows.

Sugar prices in the United States are kept artificially high through 3 types of economic controls. First, the federal government imposes a quota system on sugar production. Second, the government controls the foreign sugar supply through a tariff that enables US growers to provide approximately 85% of the sugar on the market. Third, the government operates a complicated loan system to ensure that sugar prices stay above a government-mandated price floor.

These policies benefit the small number of sugar producers in the United States by roughly $1.4 billion per year. The increased cost of sugar to all US consumers is about $2.4 billion.
 
The primary driver of US sugar policy is most likely:

A
Public Health Concerns
B
Interest Groups
C
Cost-Benefit Analysis
D
Socialism
Question 30 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). An interest group is a group of people that seek to influence public policy on the basis of a common interest or concern. In the case of sugar policy, the interest groups representing the small number of sugar producers have a very focused stake with a large economic payoff. Consequently, they will invest time, money, and effort into influencing policy. The benefits of lower sugar costs would be spread broadly among US consumers, with a small amount of savings per person. As a result, consumers lack a strong incentive to fight against these policies.
Question 31
Examine the list and answer the question that follows.

  • Slavery
  • The Dred Scott Decision
  • States' Rights
  • The Abolitionist Movement
  • The Underground Railroad
  • The Raid on Harpers Ferry
  • Southern Secession

Which of the following would be the best title for this list?

A
The Civil Rights Movement
B
Causes of the Revolutionary War
C
Abraham Lincoln's Policies
D
Causes of the American Civil War
Question 31 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Many issues led to the American Civil War, and this is a list of some of the primary causes:

Slavery: The agrarian South utilized slaves to tend its large plantations. The industrial North favored the abolition of slavery and did not rely upon slave labor.

The Dred Scott Decision: This Supreme Court decision denied citizenship for African-Americans.

States' Rights: A states' rights struggle ensued over the institution of slavery, and whether the federal government had the right to regulate (or abolish) slavery within states.

The Abolitionist Movement: This was a growing movement in the North that sought to abolish slavery across the country.

The Underground Railroad: This was a network of secret routes and safe houses established by abolitionists to help runaway slaves escape the South.

The Raid on Harpers Ferry: This was an attempt by John Brown (an abolitionist) to initiate an armed slave revolt by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

Southern Secession: South Carolina seceded in 1860. Soon afterwards, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas also seceded from the Union.
Question 32
Initially, both the North and the South predicted that the Civil War would be…

A
a long, drawn-out affair.
B
over within a matter of months.
C
a certain victory for the North.
D
a certain victory for the South.
Question 32 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). It was impossible for either side to predict the outcome of the war. While there were some strategists and military experts who predicted an extended conflict, most people were enthusiastic to participate in and, in some cases, spectate the battles. Sectional pride prevented either side from predicting a long war.
Question 33
The following excerpt is from the 1803 Supreme Court decision Marbury v. Madison, which established the concept of judicial review:

“It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases, must of necessity expound and interpret that rule. If two laws conflict with each other, the courts must decide on the operation of each.”
 
This ruling is an example of which of the following concepts?

A
Checks and balances
B
Federalism
C
Natural rights
D
Reserved powers
Question 33 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to determine whether or not a law is constitutional. This serves as a check on the authority of Congress because the Supreme Court can strike down laws that it decides are in conflict with the Constitution.

Federalism is a mode of government that distributes power between a centralized federal government and smaller regional governments. Natural rights are inalienable rights that cannot be revoked by an institution. Reserved powers are those that are not explicitly stated in a document, such as the Constitution, but nonetheless still belong to the government in question.
Question 34
This excerpt is the 5th Amendment from the Bill of Rights.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
 
Amendment V provides each of the following rights EXCEPT:

A
The right against self incrimination.
B
The right of due process.
C
The right against unreasonable search and seizure.
D
The right to be tried only once.
Question 34 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The right against self-incrimination is described as “[no person] shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself…” The right of due process is described by “without due process of law.” The right to be tried only once is described by “nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.” Protection from unreasonable search and seizure is granted by the 4th Amendment.
Question 35
The following graph portrays a hypothetical model for US demand of Brazilian coffee. It presents the demand before and after the passage of a $1 tariff (tax) on imported Brazilian coffee.

What impact, if any, would the tariff have on US demand for Brazilian coffee?

A
None — US consumers would continue to buy Brazilian coffee in the same amounts.
B
US consumers would buy more Brazilian coffee after enforcement of the tariff.
C
US consumers would buy less Brazilian coffee after enforcement of the tariff.
D
Consumers would buy more Colombian coffee.
Question 35 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). In response to a tariff, US consumers would buy less Brazilian coffee. The tariff would effectively raise the cost of imported Brazilian coffee by $1. Typically, as price of a certain good or service increases, demand decreases.
Question 36
The following excerpt is from Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, given on March 4, 1965.

“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
 
Which of the following best summarizes Lincoln’s feelings towards carrying out the process of Reconstruction?

A
Lincoln believed the Southern states should not be welcomed back into the United States.
B
Lincoln believed that the Southern states should have to give equal rights to African Americans before welcoming them back into the United States.
C
Lincoln insisted that a majority of a Southern state’s citizens had to pledge loyalty to the United States before the state could be welcomed back into the Union.
D
Lincoln believed that there would be no benefit to punishing Southern states.
Question 36 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Following the Civil War, Lincoln realized that anything prolonging the divide between the North and the South would prove harmful to the nation overall. The war devastated the Southern economy and population, causing a general resentment towards the victorious North. Lincoln believed that further punitive actions against the South would only slow the nation’s healing. Lincoln’s view, while prudent, was not extremely popular.
Question 37
How did the Wade-Davis Bill seek to handle Reconstruction?

A
The former Confederate states had to put state constitutions in place that included a ban on slavery.
B
The majority of white males in each formerly Confederate state had to pledge allegiance to the United States.
C
Confederates were banned from public office moving forward.
D
All of the above.
Question 37 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The bill proposed by the Radical Republicans sought to punish the South for its rebellion, and reinforce the expectation of loyalty and obedience to the federal government. Lincoln eventually vetoed the bill, but it set the stage for a compromise on the issue of Reconstruction.
Question 38
The following image is a political cartoon from the Columbus Dispatch in February 1937:

The cartoon criticizes President Franklin Roosevelt’s efforts to expand the Supreme Court from 9 to 15 justices and thus appoint 6 new members himself. The cartoon depicts this attempt as a violation of which of the following principles?

A
Federalism
B
Popular sovereignty
C
Checks and balances
D
Natural Rights
Question 38 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The cartoon points out that several key parts of President Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation have been struck down by the Supreme Court. It depicts FDR’s efforts to “pack the court” with more supportive justices as an attempt at changing the umpire in a baseball game. This is analogous to violating the system of checks and balances — FDR’s “court packing” would undermine the Supreme Court’s independence and ultimately remove a check on legislative and executive authority.
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